Generation of lossy mode resonances (LMR) using perovskite nanofilms
Dayron Armas, Ignacio R. Matias, M. Carmen Lopez-Gonzalez, Carlos Ruiz Zamarreño, Pablo Zubiate, Ignacio del Villar, and Beatriz Romero
  • Dec. 19, 2024
  • Opto-Electronic Advances
  • Vol. 7, Issue 2, 230072-1 (2024)
  • DOI:10.29026/oea.2024.230072
China's Top 10 Optical Breakthroughs: Laser Fabrication and Applications of 3D Inorganic Micro and Nanostructures (Invited)
Jianmiao Zhang, Feng Jin, Xianzi Dong, and Meiling Zheng
Three-dimensional (3D) inorganic micro and nanostructures play an important role in photonics, quantum information, aerospace, energy, and other fields. Inorganic microstructures prepared using traditional methods usually exhibit low resolution and uncontrollable morphology. The precise and controllable fabrication of 3D inorganic micro and nanostructures is a critical problem. Because of advantages such as 3D fabrication capability, high precision, and controllable morphology, laser fabrication can realize the preparation of 3D, high-resolution, and multiscale micro and nanostructures; furthermore, it can address the problem of accurate and controllable preparation of these 3D structures. In this study, the research progress of laser fabrication of inorganic micro and nanostructures was reviewed. First, continuous wave and ultrafast pulse laser fabrication methods were discussed, and especially, the femtosecond laser fabrication of 3D inorganic microstructures and nanostructures, including pure inorganic material systems, organic-inorganic hybrid systems, and polymer templates, were summarized. Further, the applications of 3D micro and nanostructures in optical devices, quantum chips, information storage, aerospace, and bionic structures in recent years were summarized. Finally, we highlighted the potential future development of the laser fabrication of 3D inorganic micro and nanostructures.
  • Oct. 10, 2024
  • Laser & Optoelectronics Progress
  • Vol. 61, Issue 19, 1900001 (2024)
  • DOI:10.3788/LOP232270
Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Research on Tubular Electrode‑Coupled Laser and Electrochemical Hybrid Machining
Xue Yang, Chengjuan Yang, Hao Tong, Huimin Qi, Yao Yao, and Zhen Yang
ObjectiveLaser and electrochemical hybrid machining is a composite processing method that combines laser and electrochemical processing. It can be used to process hard conductive materials. It can accelerate the electrochemical dissolution rate, avoiding recasting layers, thus improving the surface quality. This study proposes a tubular electrode-coupled laser and electrochemical hybrid machining technology that uses a newly designed tubular electrode. This realizes coaxial transmission of laser and electrochemical energy inside the tubular electrode and controllable coupling at the processing gap, which is suitable for high-quality small hole processing with a high aspect ratio. A coupling mechanism dominated by laser and an electrochemical processing is proposed based on the controllable adjustment of the laser and electrochemical energy at the processing gap. The effects of the temperature rise in the laser irradiation zone on the electrolyte conductivity, current density, liquid-phase mass transfer, and electrochemical dissolution rate, as well as the effects of bubbles and impurities generated during electrolysis on the laser energy. Material removal models for laser and electrochemical hybrid machining are established, and preliminary simulation analysis and experimental research on laser and electrochemical hybrid machining are conducted.MethodsThis study introduced a tool for laser and electrochemical hybrid machining with a tubular electrode that confined the electrolyte and laser beam coaxially or asynchronously. In addition, it utilized a coaxial optical fiber inside the tubular electrode to enable total internal reflection of the laser, thereby achieving independent control of laser and electrochemical energy within the tubular electrode. Based on this process, a coupling mechanism for the laser and electrochemical energy was explored, as well as the mechanisms where the laser and electrolysis dominate in the hybrid machining process. By investigating the temporal and spatial distributions of local temperature and stress induced by coupled energy, we study the influence of laser on mass transport and electrode potential in the micro-region of electrochemical machining. A theoretical model for the kinetic behavior of materials removal under the action of hybrid energy was established, and a preliminary simulation analysis of laser and electrochemical hybrid machining was conducted. The results of this study laid a theoretical foundation for the fabrication of complex structures with high quality and aspect ratio.Results and DiscussionsFirst, the influence of laser power density on the machining capability of workpiece materials is explored (Fig.2). When the laser power density is low, the laser affects the thermal and electrochemical parameters of the workpiece material and the changes in the electrolyte's electrical conductivity, electrolytic current density, ion diffusion rate, bubble rate, and electrode potential within the machining gap through thermal effects. When the laser power density reaches the electrolyte breakdown threshold, the laser impacts the laser and electrochemical hybrid machining process through both thermal and mechanical effects. Second, based on the controllable adjustment of the laser and electrochemical energy within the tubular electrode, the state changes in the coupling region caused by these energy are classified into three mechanisms: laser-assisted electrochemical machining, laser and electrochemical hybrid machining, and electrolysis-assisted laser machining (Fig.4). Furthermore, through theoretical analysis and preliminary simulation studies, the electric field and current density distributions in the laser and electrochemical hybrid energy field, the flow field distribution, the temperature distribution, and the resulting machining surface are investigated. This facilitates in the evaluation of material removal at different locations on the workpiece during the laser and electrochemical hybrid machining processes. Finally, three-dimensional morphologies of blind holes produced by the only electrochemical machining and laser and electrochemical hybrid machining are compared. The advantages of the hybrid laser and electrochemical processing are confirmed (Fig.9). It successfully manufactures through-holes with a diameter of 1.26 mm and a high aspect ratio of 16∶1 and through-holes with a diameter of 1.25 mm and high aspect ratios of 42∶1 (Figs.10 and 11).ConclusionsLaser and electrochemical hybrid machining typically suffer from defects such as stray corrosion caused by electrochemical machining and resolidification defects caused by laser machining. To avoid the occurrence of defects and improve the surface quality, this study introduces a tool for laser and electrochemical hybrid machining with a tubular electrode. This enables the coaxial transmission of laser and electrochemical energy within the tubular electrode and the controlled coupling at the machining gap, thereby effectively preventing defects such as stray corrosion and resolidification of layers. This approach is suitable for fabricating complex structures with high quality and aspect ratios. Based on the controllable adjustment of the laser and electrochemical energy, this study proposes mechanisms in which laser and electrolysis dominate, and both cooperate in hybrid machining. The thermal effects of the laser on the laser and electrochemical hybrid machining and the influence of the pulse width of electrolysis on the process are analyzed. This study establishes a theoretical model for the kinetic behavior of material removal under the action of hybrid energy. Preliminary investigations are also conducted on the time and spatial distribution of the hybrid energy field and its impact on the machining surface using simulation models. Through experiments, the advantages of laser and electrochemical hybrid machining are verified. Small holes with a diameter of 1.25 mm and aspect ratio of up to 42∶1 without resolidified layers are successfully produced. This study lays a theoretical foundation for the fabrication of complex structures with high quality and aspect ratio.
  • Aug. 25, 2024
  • Chinese Journal of Lasers
  • Vol. 51, Issue 16, 1602402 (2024)
  • DOI:10.3788/CJL231182
Single Side Resistance Spot Welding Process and Performance of Stainless Steel and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics Based on Laser Texturing
Caiwang Tan, Shijia Wang, Jianhui Su, Xiaohui Han, Bo Chen, and Xiaoguo Song
ObjectiveHybrid material structures have various applications in the automotive industry owing to their light weight. Stainless steel, which exhibits good corrosion resistance and remarkable mechanical properties, is widely used in automotive applications. Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) that exhibit high specific strength and cost performance have replaced existing materials in applications requiring lightweight materials. Single-side resistance spot welding of stainless steel and GFRP can help combine the advantages of the two materials. However, owing to the difference in the thermal physical properties and chemical structures of these two materials, the combined strength cannot meet industrial requirements. Improving mechanical interlocking and chemical bonding is an effective approach for enhancing the joint performance. The laser joining process can be used to fabricate micro-textures and change the surface chemical state. Thus, micro-textures on the surface of stainless steel are prepared using a nanosecond laser, and the strengthening mechanism of the interface under the influence of the micro-textures is studied.MethodsInitially, 304 stainless steel and GFRP are selected as base materials. The 304 stainless-steel sheets are subjected to laser texturing. The cruciform mesh micro-texture is selected as the basic morphology of the stainless-steel surface. The grid line uses contained multiple equally spaced scan lines, and a laser processing system supporting software is used to preset different micro-texture widths. The number of laser scanning times is set as 10, and the micro-texture width is set as 0.1?0.5 mm. An optical digital microscope and a field-emission scanning electron microscope are used to detect the laser texture, surface morphology, and fracture surface of the joint. A constant-temperature heating platform and a high-temperature wetting angle measurement system are used to measure the GFRP contact angle on the stainless-steel surface to characterize its wettability. A universal material testing machine is used to conduct tensile-shear tests on the 304 stainless steel/GFRP single-side resistance spot welding joints.Results and DiscussionsThe introduction of micro-textures on the surface of stainless steel significantly improves the wettability of the surface. The surface of stainless steel changes from an untreated non-wetting state to a wet state after laser treatment. As the width of the micro-texture increases, the wettability initially increases and then decreases (Fig. 5). When the micro-texture width is 0.2 mm, the wettability reaches the optimum value. The interior of the micro-textures is completely filled with molten GFRP. When the micro-texture width is too large, the molten GFRP cannot completely fill the interior of the micro-textures (Fig. 7). C and Fe diffuse at the interface, and an element diffusion layer is formed (Figs. 8 and 9). When the micro-texture width is 0.2 mm, the tensile-shear force reaches the maximum value of 3548 N, which is 385% higher than that of the untreated stainless steel/GFRP single-side resistance spot welding joint. The tensile-shear force first increases and then decreases as the micro-texture width increases. Compared with the case of the joint without micro-textures, after laser treatment of the stainless-steel surface, a large amount of the resin-glass fiber mixture is observed in the center area of the fracture of the joint (Fig. 11). The fracture mode changes from an interfacial fracture to a mixed form of interfacial and cohesive fractures. Corresponding to the wettability and joint tensile-shear force, the bonded-area ratio first increases and then decreases, indicating an improvement in mechanical properties.ConclusionsLaser texturing is used to improve the performance of stainless steel/GFRP single-sided resistance spot welding joints. After the nanosecond laser treatment, the wettability of the molten GFRP on the stainless-steel surface is significantly improved, and the state changes from non-wetting to wetting. The introduction of the micro-textures improves the mechanical properties of the stainless steel/GFRP resistance spot welding joint. When the micro-texture width is 0.2 mm, the tensile-shear force of the stainless steel/GFRP single-side resistance spot welding joint reaches the maximum value of 3548 N. Compared to the case wherein the micro-textures are not introduced, the tensile-shear force of the textured joint is 731 N. The introduction of the micro-textures increases the contact area between the stainless steel and GFRP, thereby significantly enhancing mechanical interlocking. When the micro-texture width is suitable, the GFRP completely fills the inside of the micro-textures. When the micro-texture width is too small or too large, the GFRP does not completely fill the inside of the micro-textures owing to the influence of wettability. In addition to mechanical interlocking, Fe and C chemically diffuse at the interface to form a compound layer, which further improves joint strength.
  • Aug. 25, 2024
  • Chinese Journal of Lasers
  • Vol. 51, Issue 16, 1602101 (2024)
  • DOI:10.3788/CJL231128
Parameters and Microstructure Evolution of TiC/TC4 Composites Formed by Selective Laser Melting
Hongkang Huang, Xia Luo, Yuhong Dai, Xin He, Yunzhong Liu, Bensheng Huang, and Zhou Fan
ObjectiveTitanium matrix composites have attracted considerable attention because of their high modulus of elasticity, high specific strength, high wear resistance, and excellent high-temperature durability. Most studies on titanium matrix composites (TMCs) focus primarily on the in-situ formed TiC reinforced composites. However, few studies have focused on the direct addition of TiC-reinforced titanium matrices. The manners in which the size, morphology, and distribution of TiC evolve during the SLM process and how they affect the microstructure and mechanical properties remain unclear. In this study, TiC/TC4 composites with directly added nanoscale TiC particles are successfully prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), and the microstructure evolution under different volume energy densities is investigated. Further, the TiC evolution during SLM and its influence on the microstructure and microhardness are analyzed. Thus, the findings of this study can provide the support for SLM preparation of titanium composites.MethodsHerein, nanoscale TiC (diameter of 50?150 nm) and TC4 are selected as the reinforced phase and matrix, respectively. The composite powder with TiC uniformly embedded on the surface of the TC4 powder is obtained by low-energy ball milling. Subsequently, the TiC/TC4 composites are prepared via SLM with different volume energy densities (29?97 J/mm3). The forming quality and microstructures at different volume energy densities are observed using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped energy disperse spectroscope (EDS). The grain size and crystal orientation are investigated using electron backscattering diffractometer (EBSD), and the phase compositions are measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the microhardness is measured using a digital microhardness tester.Results and DiscussionsThe optimized volume energy densities for the SLM formed TiC/TC4 composites are in the range of 50?70 J/mm3, with a relative density of 99.7% (Fig.3). Owing to the enrichment of TiC in the melt pool boundary zone, the microstructure of the composites exhibits a special double-sized grain distribution in the cross section (Fig.6). Owing to the rapid cooling characteristics of the SLM process, TiC cannot be sufficiently dissolved. Therefore, the SEM and EBSD results reveal three types of reinforcement: undissolved TiC, eutectic TiC, and precipitated TiC. Undissolved TiC is distributed primarily at the boundaries of coarse β equiaxed grains, eutectic TiC is distributed primarily in the boundaries of irregular eutectic β grains, and precipitated TiC is distributed primarily in the grains. With an increase in volume energy density, the chain-like eutectic TiC gradually transforms to rod-like eutectic TiC (Figs.7 and 8), the size of precipitated TiC inside the grain gradually increases, and the sizes of longitudinal and transverse α'-Ti gradually increase.ConclusionsThe optimal volume energy density for the formation of TiC/TC4 composites by SLM is 50?70 /mm3, and the relative density is 99.7% within this parameter range. TiC is enriched in the melt-pool boundary region under a strong temperature gradient and Marangoni convection. The microstructure of the composite has a special double-size grain distribution in the cross section, consisting of primary β equiaxed grains and irregular eutectic regions growing on the periphery. In the longitudinal section, the molten pool is a fish scale, and some chain structures exist in the molten pool that grow from the direction of heat flow to the horizontal direction. With an increase in volume energy density, the size of primary β equiaxed grains decreases, outer-ring irregular eutectic region expands, and morphology of fish scales becomes sharp. The microhardness initially decreases and then increases, essentially reaching 385?392 HV in the optimal molding process window. TiC in the composites is composed primarily of undissolved TiC (distributed near the primary β grain boundaries), eutectic TiC (distributed in the eutectic β grain boundaries in a chain or rod-like network), and precipitated TiC (distributed in the grain in a granular manner). With an increase in volume energy density, the difference in TiC size and quantity inside and outside the molten pool increases, chain distribution of eutectic TiC changes to rod, and the size of TiC in the grains increases. Further, no obvious orientation relationship between eutectic TiC and β-Ti is observed; however, a distinct orientation relationship between eutectic and in-grain TiC and α'-Ti exists: {11?20} α'-Ti∥{110}TiC.
  • Aug. 25, 2024
  • Chinese Journal of Lasers
  • Vol. 51, Issue 16, 1602301 (2024)
  • DOI:10.3788/CJL231156
Study on Coaxial Dual-Beam Laser Welding Process and Microstructure and Properties of Nodular Cast Iron QT500 and Alloy Steel 20MnCr5
Shuaishuai Chen, Wendong Zhang, Xianghuan Liu, Qiyun Chen, Boyang Li, Shuanghao Cui, Liming Liu, and Hongyang Wang
ObjectiveDuctile iron has been extensively used in various automotive components such as crankshafts and differential housing owing to its relatively low density and capacity for significant tensile strength. 20MnCr5 is a robust and tough alloy steel commonly employed in the production of gears and shafts. Establishing effective welding between the shaft body and the gear material is a significant research challenge. However, the notable disparity in the thermal properties between ductile iron and alloy steel hinders the performance of the welding joint. The high carbon content of ductile iron promotes carbon segregation at the welding interface and exacerbates the formation of microcracks, thereby considerably increasing the complexity of the welding process. Owing to its high energy density, laser welding offers the advantage of generating welds with more precise heat-affected zones. In this study, a novel continuous-pulse coaxial dual-beam laser is employed as a welding heat source to enhance the surface quality of the weld seam. The high-quality welding of ductile iron and alloy steel is achieved by decreasing the laser input power and diminishing pore formation. We hope that our novel welding strategy and findings will be helpful in understanding the bonding mechanism of ductile iron and alloy steel and provide more application space for their connectors.MethodsIn this study, QT500-7 and 20MnCr5 are employed as the base materials, with ERNiCr-3 as the filling wire. A novel continuous-pulse dual-beam laser is used as the heat source. First, the pulsed laser power is varied with a constant continuous laser power to determine the optimal combination of heat sources. The laser action position is then adjusted to further enhance the weld strength. Microstructures are observed using a metallographic microscope, and mechanical performance testing and analysis are conducted using a tensile testing machine. The microhardness of the weld is measured using a microhardness tester. Additionally, the fracture behaviors of different specimens are analyzed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope.Results and DiscussionsThe use of a continuous-pulse coaxial dual-beam laser as a welding heat source (Fig. 2) produces high-quality welding joints. When the pulsed laser power is varied, the weld formation varies considerably (Fig. 4). The weld seam is found to have no defects, such as cracks or pores. When the laser action position shifts toward the steel side, the heat input on the ductile iron side gradually decreases. This reduction in the heat input suppresses the diffusion of carbon, leading to a significant decrease in the hardness values of the heat-affected and bond zones on the QT500 side (Fig. 13). The cross-sectional morphology of the weld reveals significant changes in the melting amount of the QT500-7 side base material, with the centerline shifting toward the ductile iron side when the laser action position is changed (Fig. 6). The segregation line of carbon caused by the high carbon content of the nodular cast iron is solved by changing the laser position to reduce the heat input on the side of the nodular cast iron (Fig. 7). The best mechanical properties of the joint are obtained under a pulsed laser power of 440 W and offset of 0.2 mm. In summary, a continuous-pulse coaxial dual-beam laser can yield high-quality welding joints. Better dual-beam laser welding parameters can be achieved by adjusting the laser power and action position. Furthermore, carbon segregation issues can be effectively resolved by reducing the heat input on the side of the nodular cast iron by changing the laser action position, and pulsed laser stirring proves useful.ConclusionsIn this study, a coaxial dual-beam laser welding technology is proposed to address the challenges of welding ductile iron QT500 and alloy steel 20MnCr5. The main problems are the precipitation of martensite and ledeburite in the heat-affected and bond zones on the QT500 side, which results in carbon segregation. The pulsed laser power and position are adjusted in this study. When the laser action position is shifted toward the steel side, the decreased heat input suppresses the diffusion of carbon, leading to a significant decrease in the hardness of the heat-affected and bond zones on the QT500 side. The best mechanical properties are achieved under a pulsed laser power of 440 W and laser offset of 0.2 mm. The continuous-pulse coaxial dual-beam laser welding technology not only improves the carbon segregation phenomenon on the ductile iron side but also reduces the formation of welding cracks. Overall, the proposed novel coaxial dual-beam laser welding technology is effective in improving welding quality, specifically for ductile iron and alloy steel dissimilar metals. The joint exhibits high-quality and high-performance characteristics by reducing carbon segregation and minimizing hardness values. This study advances the field of welding and provides a potential solution for the welding of dissimilar metals with different material properties.
  • Aug. 25, 2024
  • Chinese Journal of Lasers
  • Vol. 51, Issue 16, 1602102 (2024)
  • DOI:10.3788/CJL231150
Experimental Research on Waterjet‑Guided Laser Processing of Microholes in Single Crystal Ni‑Based Superalloys
Shunshan Wang, Hongchao Qiao, Zhihe Cao, Jinsheng Liang, Dongyu Han, and Jibin Zhao
ObjectiveWith the rapid development of the aerospace, ship, power, and energy fields, single-crystal Ni-based superalloys have been widely used in aeroengine and gas turbine components because of their excellent comprehensive performance. This has resulted in an increase in the quality requirements for related microhole structures, which has translated to higher processing technology requirements. Waterjet-guided laser drilling technology, when compared with other traditional microhole processing techniques, such as electrochemical machining, electrical discharge machining, and “dry laser” processing, has the advantages of a large working distance, no thermal damage, neat cutting, and no obvious taper. However, the high specific strength and low thermal conductivity of single-crystal Ni-based superalloys make them prone to defects such as poor microhole surface morphologies and large tapers during processing. Hence, it is crucial to investigate the effects of the processing parameters on the microhole surface morphologies and taper for high-quality machining of superalloy microholes.MethodsThis study investigates the mechanism and experimental research of waterjet-guided laser drilling of the single-crystal Ni-based superalloy, DD91. First, the effects of the laser single-pulse energy, scanning speed, feed time, and scanning time on the surface morphologies and tapers of microholes are studied by setting up single-factor experiments. Then, based on the single-step spiral scanning mode [Fig.2(a)], a multistep spiral scanning mode drilling method [Fig.2(b)] is proposed to improve the defects of poor microhole surface morphologies and large tapers. In the multistep spiral scanning mode, the coupled energy beam repeatedly scans the innermost circle (circle 1) N times, cut across the material to form a prefabricated hole at the center of the microhole, and then scans the second circle (circle 2) to the outermost circle (circle N) N times with a single-step spiral scanning mode to complete the processing of the filling circle and hence widen the aperture and improve the microhole geometry. Finally, the quality of microhole machining via the single/multistep spiral drilling methods is compared under the appropriate processing parameters. The microhole surface morphologies are observed using optical microscope, the entrance and exit apertures are measured via ultra-depth-of-field microscope, and the corresponding taper is calculated.Results and DiscussionsDuring waterjet-guided laser trepanning on metals, material removal is dominated by laser ablation through mechanisms such as photothermal mechanisms, including material melting, evaporation, and sublimation. The water jet, with its high heat capacity, can provide good heat management as well as clean molten material and debris from the ablation zone (Fig.3). As the laser single-pulse energy increases, the material removal rate also increases, which enlarges the exit diameters and causes the taper to increase (Fig.5). A pulse energy that is too low will lead to serious microhole surface morphology damage (Fig.4). With an increase in scanning speed, the ablation time per unit area decreases, which leads to a worsening of the circularity of the hole (Fig.7), a decrease in the exit diameter, and an increase in the taper (Fig.6). As shown in Fig. 9, the entrance diameters of the microholes are all steady at approximately 1025 μm, regardless of how many feeds are applied. The exit diameters increase with an increasing number of feeds and reach a saturation value (approximately 1000 μm) after the feed time is over 6 (Fig.9). Multiple feeds can improve the circularity of the microhole (Fig.8). When the scanning time is 1, the microhole taper is smallest, but the dimensional accuracy is low. With an increase in the scanning times, the quality of the microhole deteriorates, the entrance aperture decreases linearly, the exit aperture first decreases and then becomes saturated, and the taper of the microhole first increases and then decreases (Figs.10 and 11). Based on the above results, the appropriate processing parameters are selected to compare the quality of microhole machining via the single/multistep spiral drilling methods. The surface morphologies and taper of the microhole processed using the multistep spiral drilling method are obviously improved (Fig.12 and Table 2). This is because a prefabricated hole at the center of the microhole can discharge debris and water from the bottom of the hole, reduce the interference with laser transmission, and improve the surface morphologies and taper of the microhole.ConclusionsThe variations in the laser single-pulse energy, scanning speed, feed time, and scanning time on the surface morphologies and taper of microholes using the single spiral drilling method are investigated. A multistep spiral scanning mode drilling method is proposed to improve the defects of poor microhole surface morphologies and large tapers caused by the single-step spiral scanning mode. The quality of microhole machining using the single/multistep spiral drilling methods is compared under appropriate processing parameters. The experiments indicate that increasing the single-pulse energy and reducing the scanning speed can improve the surface morphology of microholes and reduce the microhole taper. With an increase in the feed times, the surface morphology of the microhole gradually improves, and the microhole taper initially decreases and then saturates. As the number of scanning rounds increases, the surface morphology of microhole gradually deteriorates, and the microhole taper first increases and then decreases. The taper of microholes processed using the multistep spiral method is only 0.29°, which is a 70% reduction compared to that using the single-step spiral method, and the dimensional deviation and roundness are controlled within 20 μm.
  • Aug. 25, 2024
  • Chinese Journal of Lasers
  • Vol. 51, Issue 16, 1602404 (2024)
  • DOI:10.3788/CJL231117